Friday, January 31, 2020
Overview of Symphony Orchestra and Wind Band as different Entities of Music - Dissertation Example Some people think music is all around us and in everything that we do. There are those who also think collectively, music is a spice that gives the world its sweet piece of aroma and taste. But for however one perceives music, it could just be right to admit that there are thousands of factors that go into the creation and formation of music than mere coincidence. Music is actually created and this is what makes music an art. Talking about the creation of music, mention can be made of the different elements that come together to make the formation of music complete. One of such adorable elements that always stand out in the composition of music is ensembles. The kind of ensembles present and how they are used to form or create music also goes a long way to talk of the kind of music we have. Largely, the presence of different ensembles and how these are put to gather to create music would bring two major groups of music to bear and these two groups are symphony orchestra and the Ameri can wind band. There are many who have thought that because these two groups primarily end up in the creation or composition of music, there should actually not be any need differentiating them but that is technically not correct. (Forest, 2008). This research paper therefore tries to take a direct look at symphony orchestra and the American wind band in terms of practical musical issues that differentiate them and that account for reasons why composers make a choice between writing for orchestra or band. Difference in Instrumentation Instrumentation remains a major phenomenon in the discussion of the differences between orchestra and band. Typically, the instrumentation refers to the assembly of musical ensembles or instruments available to the two types of musical composition (Diamond, 2009). On a larger scale, orchestra is often thought to be with a standard instrumentation; a concept that is largely absent in the American wind band. Without implying that a band does not need all the ensembles in an orchestra to function, a band, can well function without a fraction of most of the ensembles that are needed in a typical orchestra. For this reason, orchestra is generally seen as a more standardized instrument based outfit than a band. This is very much because unlike a band, an orchestra can just not function properly in the absence of most of the so called standard instrumentations. In the count of ensembles rather than individual players on a band and an orchestra therefore, it would be true to say that an orchestra is a larger musical outfit than a band. It would also be true to say that an orchestra is a well organized musical outfit than a band. There are some music historians who even believe that in terms of differences in instrumentation, an orchestra is a more professional body of music than a band. Young Composers (2008) for instance writes that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Wind Band" is a large ensemble consisting of many woodwinds, brass, and percussion.Ã¢â¬ He further states that Ã¢â¬Å"a "Wind Symphony" could be considered a larger or more technically skilled ensemble, with additional instruments, more players, and with a repertoire more difficult, expansive, and varied.Ã¢â¬ Organization There exist major differences between orchestra and band that result from their organization on a typical musical stage. Given a very typical musical show, the kind of technical organization that will take place within the orchestra is totally different from what will be experienced for a band. Most often than not, the differences in organization emanate from differences in instrumentation. As it has been indicated earlier, the types of instrumentation used in orchestras are totally different
Thursday, January 23, 2020
James Joyce's Eveline and Araby James Joyce uses similar themes and language devices in both 'Araby' and 'Eveline.' Although this is so, there are also important differences to be noted. Joyce wrote these stories over one hundred years ago but yet we can still relate to the issues covered in the modern world today. James Joyce could have written these short stories as an inspiration from his own background or based them on the events happening in Dublin at that time. These stories were written as a new century was beginning. The people of Dublin soon realized the sense of hope for the new century had faded due to the fall and death of Parnell. This relates to both of the stories as a sense of false hope is given in each. Joyce sensed exhaustion and emptiness in Dublin and these are also the emotional results in both stories. In 'Araby,' the story is written in first person narrative. This gives you a chance to get a detailed point of view of the boy's feelings. This makes you more emotionally involved in the story, as it becomes more convincing if you understand the range of emotions the boy is going through. On top of this, the story is written as though it were an event, which happened many years ago. It could have been a significant event in his life as it is very much portrayed in this way. In 'Eveline,' the narration is third person. Although the feelings are not expressed deeply, you can still get a sense of the emotions she was feeling. These emotions are expressed greatly through rhetorical questions. Themes are an important issue in both stories. Both stories contain the themes of blind love, religion, family, p... ... frequently in both. An example from 'Eveline' is, 'Why should she be unhappy?' This line shows that even though there is a third person narration, we can still experience her feelings. Both stories have a modern relevance that we can interact with. In 'Araby,' the boy experiences momentary infatuation and this is something everyone experiences in some point of their life. In 'Eveline,' she feels that she has to escape from her family and run away with the man of her dreams. Do many women not dream of this today? In conclusion, I think that both these stories were both very similar as the themes and language devices are essential in both. It has a very good relevance to the modern world and the writer conveys different advantages by using different narration techniques in both. Both stories were successful!
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Introduction Neogeography, literally intending Ã¢â¬Å"new geographyÃ¢â¬ is basically a Ã¢â¬Å"do-it-yourselfÃ¢â¬ function scheduling, which is going progressively popular and powerful today ( Wikipedia.org ) . In the past, making maps online was left to the GIS specializers who knew the art and linguistic communication of GIS ( C. Morais, 2007 ) . Neogeography, on the other manus can be used by virtually anyone with no expertness or makings required in function, because of this some respect neogeography to be a subset of GIS, while others consider neogeography to hold killed GIS ( A. Turner, 2006 ) . Neogeography is fun as one can make things such as portion the location of their first buss, or vacation, ne'er once more will one battle to retrieve where a exposure was taken ( A. Turner, 2006 ) . In a nutshell, neogeography is all about people utilizing and making their ain maps, sharing information and locations with household and friends every bit good as geotagging images of vacations, wh ile obtaining utile penetration of that location. Neogeography Geocoding is of import in neogeography as they provide co-ordinates of a location, which can so be processed ( A. Turner, 2006 ) . For illustration, when users post a image to applications such as Facebook or Instagram, it besides lets them label the location where the image was taken and therefore, cognition is gained in this manner. Some illustrations of neogeography is Google Maps, Google Earth, Yelp, SaveMe999, OneMap, OpenStreetMap, UCrime among others ( A. Coote and L. Rackham, 2008 ) . While each of these have their utility, neogeography besides comes with the power to destruct. Neogeography-hit or lose? The advantages of neogeography is legion and each neogeography application has its ain specific power that makes a userÃ¢â¬â¢s life easier. For illustration, the SaveMe999 application designed in Malaysia, specifically to turn to the handicapped community particularly the deaf and deaf-and-dumb person ( R. Anas, 2013 ) . Undoubtedly, this is a great advantage to the handicapped citizens, as SaveMe999 uses Ã¢â¬Å"GPS information in the usersÃ¢â¬â¢ smartphone to place the callerÃ¢â¬â¢s locationÃ¢â¬ when they call and therefore assist can be sent to the right reference as location is one of the most of import facets in directing an exigency response ( R. Anas, 2013 ) . Disabled people can hence be more independent, every bit good as feel more safe and secure. Google Maps and Google Earth is another great illustration of neogeography. Google Maps is utile such that it shows waies from one location to another, either by auto, motorcycle or walking by demoing the relevant street maps. It besides shows the expected clip that it will take the user to make their finish and one of the most utile characteristic of the Google map is that it can be viewed in three different manners: terrain, a normal map position and orbiter position ( M. Cornock, 2011 ) . One can besides custom-make their ain maps in Google maps which can be saved, loaded or printed out at any clip ( L. Storm, 2007 ) . Google Maps, nevertheless, promotes communicating isolation, as before Google Maps verbal waies was an of import accomplishment to possess and understand but with the enlargement and turning popularity of Google Maps verbal waies are deceasing out ( L.Storm, 2007 ) . Google Earth meanwhile, shows orbiter and aerial imagination of the specified location in 3D. This is used for many positive effects. For illustration, the World Wide Fund uses it to protect the Sumatran Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams, alleviation workers uses it for crisis response after natural catastrophe, and it is besides used for environmental issues such as pollution. Possibly, the finest illustration of how Google Maps and Google Earth came to assist an environmental issue is the instance of the Appalachian Mountaintop remotion, in which excavation companies removed the tops of mountains in order to mine for coal. By utilizing Google Earth and Google Maps conservationists were able to analyze the graduated table of a really dramatic environmental job and was besides able to pass on this issue to the people in the community who so took action to protect their mountains ( Google Earth Outreach, 2010 ) . Ã¢â¬Å"In the 10 yearss following the release of the Appalachian Mountaintop Removal bed in Google Earth, more than 13,000 people signed an on-line request to halt mountaintop removalÃ¢â¬ ( Google Earth Outreach, 2010 ) . Therefore, it can be seen how Google Map and Google Earth is used for positive impacts. However, Google Earth and Google maps can be misused. One of the most concerning factors is privacy and security, the fact that anyone can happen anything is rather dismaying particularly for safety grounds. Other disadvantage of Google Earth and Google Map include ; inaccuracy of information, unavailability as users need right Personal computer demands and cyberspace, less developed states are ill represented every bit good ( S. Myer, 2010 ) . Furthermore, satellite imagination can capture images that are non delighting to the oculus such as force or war. UCrime.com is a free online service that provides easy to read offense maps and have automatic qui vives for people that attend universities or montages ( A. Coote and L. Rackman, 2008 ) .Users so receive immediate electronic mails if a offense has occurred near a selected college or university and in this manner there is public safety, besides users can supply tips and thoughts to assist work out offense in the country in which they operate in ( A. Coote and L. Rackman, 2008 ) . Some general advantages neogeography has to a user are ; it helps users locate topographic points based on other peoples stations, it besides increases consciousness of geographics since anyone can larn how to utilize and make their ain maps, moreover, neogeography allows everyone to lend to the development of the digital universe and immense sums of informations and information is made available by users ( A. Schuyler, 2009 ) . Using neogeography saves clip and money for concerns and organisations and eventually, possibly the greatest advantage of neogeography is that anyone can make maps, they do non necessitate to hold makings or be a professional in function. On the other manus, there are besides several disadvantages in neogeography and one of the biggest menace of neogeography is its informations quality: its truth, completeness, consistence, and quality confidence ( A. Coote and L. Rackham, 2008 ) . Since users create the maps the information might be wrong and undependable, this can severe effects, for illustration when be aftering a holiday. Besides, when making the maps the Godheads can either add excessively much unneeded information or possibly excessively small, lending to the deficiency of completeness of the information ( A. Coote and L. Rackham, 2008 ) . Neogeographic datasets makes small mention to quality confidence, some maps created utilizing neogeography have no 1 to supervise the quality and dependability of the maps ( A. Coote and L. Rackham, 2008 ) . Security and privateness as discussed before is another disadvantage, as sometimes it so happens that when users create the maps, they may roll up informations from privat e locations which the proprietors might dislike. Finally, the enlargement of the digital universe could intend less geographic expedition in the existent universe, people might worsen in sing things foremost manus as they can research topographic points online in neogeography and therefore, people may bit by bit go stray from the existent universe. Decision In decision, neogeography, if non exploited helps us a great trade and the hereafter of neogeography is in our custodies and we have a opportunity to utilize it or misapply that power. Reference ListAndrew Coote and Les Rackham. ( 2008 ) . Neogeography data quality-is it an issue? [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.consultingwhere.com/wpcontent/uploads/resources/Neogeography+Data+Quality+-+is+it+an+issue+-+V1_1.pdf. [ Accessed 28ThursdayFebruary 15 ]Andrew J. Turner. ( 2006 ) Introduction to Neogeography. O'Reilly Media, Inc. pp. 2Caitlin Dempsey Morais. 2007. Neogeography. [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gislounge.com/neogeography/.[ Accessed 03 March 15 ] .Earth Outreach. ( 2009 ) . Appalachian Mountaintop Removal in Google Earth & A ; Maps. [ Online Video ] . 07 May 2009. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=aiSzOiGFa-0.[ Accessed: 19 February 15 ] .Google Outreach. 2010. Appalachian Voices. [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.google.co.za/earth/outreach/stories/appvoices.html. [ Accessed 19 February 15 ] .Laurel Storm. 2011. Disadvantages & A ; Advant ages of Using Google Maps Website. [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //science.opposingviews.com/disadvantages-advantages-using-google-maps-website-1538.html. [ Accessed 04 March 15 ] .Rozinah Anas. ( 2013 ) . SAVEME999 Application-Asia Geospatial Forum. [ ONLINE ] Available at: www.asiageospatialforum.org/2013/pdf/Rozinah % 20Anas.pps. [ Accessed 27ThursdayMarch ] .
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
At every grade level and in every discipline, teachers must know what their students know before beginning a new unit of study. One way to make this determination is to use a pretest thatÃ assesses student proficiency in the skills that are going to be taught. But how do you write a successful pretest? Thats where backward design comes in. Backward Design Backward design is defined by the Glossary of Education Reform as follows: Backward design begins with the objectives of a unit or courseÃ¢â¬âwhat students are expected to learn and be able to doÃ¢â¬âand then proceeds backward to create lessons that achieve those desired goals, (Backward Design Definition). Pretests were developed through this backward-planning process, which was popularized by educatorsÃ Grant WigginsÃ andÃ Jay McTigheÃ in their book,Ã Understanding by Design.Ã The book detailed the idea ofÃ using backward design to write practical pretests. Wiggins and McTigue argued that lesson plans should begin with finalÃ assessmentsÃ in mind in order to effectively target areas of student weaknesses.Ã A test taken before instruction begins can give teachers a fairly accurate idea of how students might perform on the final assessment, allowing them to better anticipate problems that might arise. Therefore, before instruction, teachers should carefully study pretest results. How to Use Pretest Data A teacher can make informed decisions about how to divide their time teaching certain skillsets and concepts using pretest data. If, for example, they have determined that all students have already mastered a particular skill, they can spend significantly less time on this and use the additional instructional time to address material more challenging for their students. But it isnt usually as simple as students understanding or not understanding somethingÃ¢â¬âstudents can show anything from full to very limited comprehension. Pretests allow teachers to see levels of proficiency for each student. They should assess the degree to which students meet expectations using just prior knowledge. For example, a geography pretest can assess students understanding of the concepts of latitude and longitude. Students that demonstrate mastery of this topic either meet or exceed expectations, students somewhat familiar approach expectations, and students demonstrating little to no understanding do not meet expectations. Rubrics are a great tool for using standards-based identifiers to measure different aspects of student performance, but remember that a student is not supposed to meet expectations on a pretest. Advantages of Pretests You are probably already starting to understand the usefulness of pretesting. In their best form, pretests are invaluable instructional tools that offer insight few other tools or methods can. The following reasons make pretests beneficial. Comprehensive Assessment Pretests measure student growth over time through comprehensive assessment. They can show a students level of understanding before and after instruction, even while instruction is still happening. Comparing pre- and post-tests allows teachers to track student development from one class to the next, between topics, and even from day-to-day. Most forms of assessment just determine whether a student meets expectations after theyve been taught, but these fail to account for prior knowledge and incremental progress. Even when a student doesnt quite demonstrate proficiency on a post-test, pretests can show that theyve grown. No amount of progress should be ignored and assessment should not be as limited as yes a student meets expectations or no they do not. Preparing Students Pretests give students a preview of what to expect from a new unit. These tests are often the first time that a student is exposed to new terms, concepts, and ideas. Pretests, therefore, can be used as unit introductions. Pretesting your students on what you are about to teach can have the effect of relaxing them by the time a post-test comes around. This is because students feel more comfortable with material that is familiar to them and pretests can provide additional exposure. As long as you keep pretests low stakes for your students and frame them as instructional tools rather than graded assignments, they can be a great way to introduce topics. Review Pretests can be used diagnostically to determine if there are any gaps in understanding from previous units taught. Most pretests use elements of review and new material to get a comprehensive picture of student knowledge within a given area. They can be used in this way to assess whether students have retained knowledge from prior lessons. In addition to informing your future teaching, pretests can be used to show students what they still need to practice. Use completed pretest material to remind students what they learned at the conclusion of a unit and the beginning of the next. Disadvantage of Pretests There are plenty of ways that pretesting can go wrong that make many teachers opposed to using them. Read about the following disadvantages to know what to avoid when designing your own pretests. Teaching to the Test Perhaps the greatest concern with pretesting is that it contributes to the often unintentional tendency of teachers to teach to the test. Educators that practice this method prioritize their students test results above almost everything else and design their instruction with the goal of achieving good test scores in mind. This notion is obviously problematic as it fails to teach students any skills that do not directly serve them on tests. This often includes critical thinking, problem-solving, and other forms of higher-order reasoning. Teaching to the test serves one purpose and one purpose alone: doing well on tests. There is growing concern about the use of testing, both standardized and within the classroom, in general. Many feel that todays students are placed under too much pressure and submitted to excessive testing. Students are, after all, spending more time than ever taking standardized tests. There is also worry that testing by its very nature is not equitable and serves some students while disadvantaging others. Assessment can be very taxing for students and pretests are no exception. Teachers that treat these as they would any other test cause additional exhaustion and anxiety for their students. Difficult to Design A poorly-written pretest hurts more than it helps. Pretests are difficult to design in such a way that they dont feel like tests for students but gather data necessary for designing targeted instruction. Pretests and post-tests should be similar in format but mostly differentÃ¢â¬âpretests are meant to show what students know and post-tests should show whether students meet expectations. Many educators give their students pretests that are nearly identical to their post-tests, but this is bad practice for these reasons: Students might remember correct answers from pretests and use these on the post-test.A pretest that resembles a final test makes students feel that there is more at stake. Because of this, bad pretest grades can cause them to shut down.The same pre- and post-test does little to show growth. Creating Effective Pretests Now that you know the pros and cons of pretesting, you should be ready to create your own. Use what you know about good teaching practice and avoid the above pretesting failures to create effective pretests for you and your students. Teach Students to Fail Make pretests low pressure by presenting them to your students in a low-pressure environment. Explain that pretest grades will not negatively affect students and encourage them to do their best. Teach your students exactly how you plan to use pretests: to design your instruction and see what students already know. Help your students to see that not knowing material before it is taught is natural and doesnt speak to academic performance. If you teach your students to be okay with failing pretests, they will be more inclined to treat them as opportunities rather than pitfalls and have a healthier view of personal growth. Give Students Plenty of Time Pretests are not meant to be time-sensitive. Time limits are for true assessments and setting a time for a pretest will only limit their usefulness. Your students should have as much time as they need to show you what they know. Encourage them to take their time and make the most of the pretest as a unit introduction and tool for review. Remember that a pretest is often the first time that your students see some or most of the new material of a unit. Dont disadvantage them before that unit has begun by submitting them to a stressful pretesting experience. Use Pretests to Improve Instruction Always remember that the purpose of pretesting is to improve your own instruction in order to ultimately benefit your students. Use pretest data to individualize your teaching and show student growthÃ¢â¬âpretests are not just more test scores for report cards. If at any point your pretesting causes undue stress to you or your students and/or decreases the effectiveness of your instruction, you need to rethink your design. Using pretests should make your life easier, not more difficult. Design pretests that give you clear and actionable insight that you can immediately plan your teaching around. Sources Ã¢â¬Å"Backward Design Definition.Ã¢â¬ Ã The Glossary of Education Reform, Great Schools Partnership, 13 Dec. 2013.Wiggins, Grant P., and Jay McTighe.Ã Understanding by Design. 2nd ed., Pearson Education, Inc., 2006.